Roxbury was incorporated in 1812 from parts of Nelson, Keene and Marlborough, and is the smallest township in Cheshire County. An excellent-quality granite quarried in Roxbury was used widely locally and throughout the Northeast, including New York’s state capitol in Albany. Roxbury quarries were once among the most extensive in the state.

Joseph Ames, a celebrated artist and portrait painter, was born and raised here. So, too, was Isaac Woodward, a pioneer Boston pianoforte manufacturer.

Otter Brook Dam and reservoir were constructed in 1956-58 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as part of the Connecticut River Basin flood control projects, and lie on the Keene-Roxbury border.

Granite Gorge ski area opened in winter 2003 for skiing, snowboarding, tubing and cross-country skiing.